EAPM4000 Professional Communication Practice

Intercultural Communication
Lecture 4
EAPM4000 Professional
Communication Practice
Copyright Regulations 1969
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on
behalf of Kaplan Business School pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright
Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under
the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by
you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.
The lecture material contains content owned by Kaplan Business
School and other materials copyrighted by Archee, R, Gurney M,
Mohan T 2013 Communicating as professionals. Cengage Learning,
South Melbourne
Do not remove this notice.
Aims of this lecture
• understand that cultural differences affect
business relations within your country as
well as between nations
• appreciate the nature of culture, with its
implications for business practice
• recognise key differences among cultures
• learn intercultural communication skills
Intercultural communication
Mr Clarke: G’day mate. I’m Robert Clarke. My friends call me
Bob. Here’s my card.
Mr Lau: Hello Mr Clarke. I am William Lau. Very glad to meet
you. How was your trip? (Exchanges business cards.)
Mr Clarke: Call me Bob. Good, thanks. (Reading card: ‘Lau
Wing-Leung’) Oh it’s Wing-Leung! Nice to meet you. I’ll
call you tomorrow, Wing-Leung, OK?
Mr Lau (smiles): Yes, I will expect your call. (Both men
(Adapted from Scollon & Scollon 2001)
• Look at the previous ppt,
• In groups of 2 or 3 discuss what went wrong
with the conversation
• Write down 5 possible reasons why the
conversation was not a good start for a
business relationship.
The importance of
intercultural communication
• We live in a ‘global village’.
• Young Australians travel overseas as a rite of
• We are travelling more and more for business, family
and education.
• Multicultural nature of Australian society –49% of all
Australians were born overseas or had at least one
parent born overseas (2016 census) .
• We are constantly interacting with other cultures in
What is intercultural
• Starting point was The Silent Language (1959)
– Edward T. Hall
• 1970s – specialised books, courses and
professional divisions such as International
Communication Association.
• Intercultural communication can also refer to
sub-cultures within a culture, e.g. retirees,
motor bike riders, surfers.
Definitions of culture
• Culture:
– learned social behaviours that develop over time.
– a shared view of the world.
– surrounds everything we do.
– so pervasive that it becomes ‘invisible’.
– dynamic and constantly changing.
What is CULTURE?
• Difficult to define, but seems to refer to a way of
thinking and acting.
• Includes traditions, family roles, expectations,
attitudes and non-verbal communication.
• Not to be confused with ‘high’ culture (the opera)
and ‘low’ culture (pop music).
• Can be broken into four dimensions: history/world
view, socialisation, language and non-verbal
The effect of socialisation
• Acculturation: the imposition of a dominant culture into a
weaker one.
• Several overlapping stages:
– primary
– secondary
– organisational.
• Varies dramatically between cultures.
High-context and low-context
Edward T. Hall divided all cultures into:
–high-context cultures (e.g. Japanese,
Mediterranean, Middle Eastern) view the
context as importantly as the message itself.
–low-context cultures (e.g. Australian,
Scandinavians) see the message as being
the most important thing.
Context-based values
Hofstede’s dimensions of
• Geert Hofstede (1984) studied 117 000 people from 53
cultures, then re-studied 29 000 later to check on his
• Sampling biases: most were males, all middle class,
and worked for IBM.
• Activity: How would this sample affect the
results. Discuss in pairs and write down 3
limitations of the sample.
Hofstede’s dimensions of culture
Found there were five dimensions:
– Power distance
– Uncertainty avoidance
– Individualism–collectivism
– Masculinity–femininity
– Long-term–short-term
Hofstede’s model
Hofstede’s model
Hofstede’s model
• https://www.hofstede-insights.com/countrycomparison/australia/
• Check your country’s dimension score and compare
with Australia’s.
• Note all differences in Hofstede’s dimensions between
your country and Australia (if Australian with another
chosen country).
• Discuss with a partner how the different scores could
affect a business negotiation between the two
Hofstede’s model:
Professional Implications 1
• In intercultural activities those from high power-distance
cultures work with high-status negotiators or principals.
• People from high uncertainty-avoidance cultures want the
reassurance of structure and ritual.
• People from collectivist cultures like to build relationships over
a long period of time.
• People from high masculine cultures resolve conflicts by force.
• People from feminine cultures resolve conflicts through
compromise and consensus.
• People from long-term orientation cultures persevere to
achieve desired ends.
Hofstede’s model: Professional
Implications 2
• All about recognising that you think differently but
resolving common problems anyway by using
language and communication skills that guarantee
the messages are understood as intended.
• Note: Conflicts can still occur between people with
similar values (between individual and individual, and
among family and group members).
• Peaceful coexistence can prevail between people
with different values.
Activity: Professional Implications
• Watch the video then in pairs find all the
intercultural mistakes made in the meeting by
both sides.
• Then by using Hofstede’s model to explain the
errors made in the meeting:
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtLi13Sf2v
Intercultural communication
• Developed through understanding how we perceive
and react to cultural rules.
• Vital for managing the culturally diverse businesses
of today.
• True intercultural communication competence arises
out of long-term intercultural learning and personal
commitment to change and improve.
Activity: Moment of honesty and
• Watch the video on overcoming personal
prejudices and quietly reflect what is your own
prejudice and what you could do to overcome
• Then share your thoughts with a partner.
• If comfortable, share with the class:
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1MI_h0HI
Intercultural communication
• Hofstede (1991) has identified two different
approaches to culture learning:
 Culture-specific
 Culture-general
 Newly described as CQ – Cultural
Culture-specific approach
• Focuses on acquiring specific knowledge about the
‘other’ culture.
• Based on gathering information about a country.
• Useful information BUT it does not provide a full indepth understanding of the people and the culture.
Culture-general approach
• A much broader approach to culture learning,
focusing on developing the following abilities:
– cultural awareness and sensitivity
– cultural and communication sensitivity
– behavioural flexibility
– an ‘other-orientation’
– responsibility for communicating.
Activity (if time allows)
• As part of its expansion plan, an Australian supermarket called
Cheapfest decided to introduce its discounting sales strategies into
• In groups of 2 or 3 answer the following questions:
• 1. How do Japanese and Australians differ on Hofstede’s key
dimensions of culture as described in the text?
• 2. Based on the results from the model answer how:
• A. would the Japanese react to female managers from Australia
• B. How would they react to complements about their performance
from their superiors?
• C. How would they react to individual awards?
• Discuss and write down your answers.
• We have learned to:
• understand that cultural differences affect
business relations within each country as well
as between nations
• appreciate the nature of culture, with its
implications for business practice
• recognise key differences among cultures
• learn intercultural communication skills in a
professional environment.

The post EAPM4000 Professional Communication Practice appeared first on My Assignment Online.

Posted in Uncategorized