Discuss the effects of social media or cell phone use. – Essaylink


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Effects of social media or cell phone use

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Researchers (Ratanasiripong et al., 2012) were interested in determining if the use of biofeedback and counseling together would lead to better coping with stress and anxiety, than counseling alone. Thirty college students (20 women, 10 men) were selected from a counseling center at a large public university in the western United States. The subjects were all referred to the researchers (Ratanasiripong et al., 2012) because they exhibited symptoms of anxiety and stress during interactions with the counseling center staff.

To determine the current stress and anxiety level in each subject, researchers (Ratanasiripong et al., 2012) administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at the beginning of the study. The BAI consists of 21 items, where each item is measured on a scale from 0 (not present) to 3 (severely). The subjects were then randomly assigned to either a group receiving biofeedback training and counseling, or to a group receiving counseling alone. Subjects in the experimental group received four sessions of counseling combined with four sessions of biofeedback training over a 4-week period. These subjects also each received portable biofeedback devices to be used at home between sessions. Biofeedback training sessions involved teaching each subject breathing and visualization techniques. Then while watching their heart rate on the biofeedback device, the subjects were asked to use these techniques to slow their heart rates down into a steady rhythm. Subjects in the control group received four sessions of counseling over the same 4-week period. After the 4-week period, all the subjects completed the BAI again.

The researchers (Ratanasiripong et al., 2012) found that both the control and experimental groups showed a reduction in stress and anxiety levels. In the control group, the mean post-treatment BAI score was 13.13 compared to the pre-treatment mean score of 19.80. In the experimental, the mean post-treatment score was 10.53 compared to a pre-treatment mean score 24.12. The researchers (Ratanasiripong et al., 2012) determined that while counseling alone is beneficial, the combination of biofeedback training and brief counseling sessions is a more effective method than counseling alone.

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